Overcoming Psychological Dependence Addiction Oregon

The term psychological dependence is typically used to describe the emotional and mental processes that are related to the development of a substance use disorder or process addiction. In conclusion, alcohol-induced synaptic plasticity has been found in the VTA-NAC projection as well as in other brain areas of the extended amygdala. However, the generally held view that these cellular adaptations underlie alcohol reinforcement, alcohol seeking, or alcohol-induced habit formation is based on purely associative findings. Direct experimental evidence for the behavioral significance of these drug-induced synaptic changes involving glutamate receptors is still lacking. In alcohol-naive, high alcohol-drinking physiological dependence on alcohol and low-alcohol-drinking lines of rats, alcohol dose-response curves for DA release exhibited no difference in the sensitivity to alcohol between the lines . In a further comparative study, alcohol-naive HAD/LAD and AA/ANA rats were examined for their basal and ethanol-stimulated release of DA in the NAC by means of “no-net-flux” quantitative microdialysis. After completion of the neurochemical tests, the rats’ voluntary alcohol intake and preference in the home cage were tested for 1 mo . Analysis of the data across individual animals and different lines revealed that extracellular DA and the percent of baseline increase in DA due to ethanol were significant predictors of ethanol preference .

Withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety, agitation, tension, dysphoria, anorexia, insomnia, sweating, blurred vision, irritability, tremors, and hallucinations, may be seen. Since some BZDs and their metabolites have long elimination half-lives, withdrawal symptoms may not occur until several days after the drug has been discontinued. With all BZD agents, patients should be warned that development of withdrawal symptoms may occur if using these agents on a chronic basis. Patients may require a carefully designed tapering regimen if they are to abandon BZD after chronic use. It is important to understand that physical and psychological dependence are intertwined and both play a significant role in maintaining addictive behaviors. If you feel that you or a loved one are struggling with dependence on drugs or alcohol, give us a call today. We are experts at addressing both the physical and psychological parts of addiction and will work with you in your journey towards a clean and sober life. Psychological dependence is a change in emotional state that occurs after using a substance or engaging in a behavior over a period of time.

C. Gene × Environment Interactions and Alcohol Drinking/Addictive Behavior

Also address the differences between simply enjoying something and developing a psychological dependence on it. The feeling is caused by chemical reactions to neurotransmitters within the brain. Negative symptoms occur when the euphoria feeling begins to fade away as dopamine levels decrease. The decrease in mood-changing chemicals causes a person to feel irritable, tired, sad, or hopeless and experience a surge of other negative feelings. The negative feelings a person experiences cause them to crave more of the substance that makes them feel good. It could be playing video games, reading a book, socializing with friends, running, or drinking alcohol. Generally, individuals report feeling emotionally high when fully engaged in their favorite activities. Now imagine how you feel when you haven’t completed the activity in some time. Most people would report a desire, a need, or a craving to participate in their favorite activity.

There is a change in a person’s emotional state after the long-term use of a substance that changes chemicals in the brain. The change is due to neurotransmitters sending higher levels of certain chemicals. Lower dopamine levels result in irritability, sadness, and other depressing thoughts. A state in which a person requires a steady concentration of a particular substance to avoid experiencing withdrawal symptoms. Chronic use of flurazepam is often followed by tolerance and decrease in effectiveness. The most common side effects of flurazepam are dose related and include daytime drowsiness, lethargy, and dizziness. Flurazepam and other BZDs are classified as schedule IV controlled substances, capable of causing dependence, tolerance, and abuse. Only a few case reports of acute liver injury from flurazepam have been published and mostly before 1980.

D. An Integrative Systems Approach Towards Alcohol Addiction

Thus the young adolescent brain displays higher sensitivity to alcohol-induced brain damage and cognitive impairment than the adult brain, in humans as well as in rodents . Furthermore, the onset of alcohol use during adolescence leads to a higher susceptibility to stress-induced alcohol consumption and a greater risk of developing alcohol addiction in adulthood . Consuming and abusing these huge amounts of alcohol clearly also has a dark side, with enormous health and socioeconomic impacts on the world population. Thus in 10–20% of consumers, chronic alcohol use and abuse contributes to a multiplicity of medical complications including damage to organs and immune functions. Although most body organs are affected by alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol use, severe alcohol-induced diseases are most notable in the liver, pancreas, and brain. Alcohol-induced brain damage is a particular problem during pregnancy, resulting in fetal alcohol syndrome, which represents the most common form of acquired mental disability, affecting up to 7/1,000 infants . Some addiction therapists believe psychological dependence is tougher to quit and requires more extensive aftercare. Once the substances are out of the body, and the body begins to heal, the person may continue to suffer from the psychological consequences. Finding the right treatment facility and support system can make enduring the symptoms of withdrawal more manageable.

NMDA receptors composed of NR1/NR3A subunits exhibit a reduced sensitivity to channel blockers compared with NR1/NR2A receptors . Importantly, alcohol-preferring msP rats have enhanced brain levels of NR3A and are almost insensitive to neramexane treatment (V. Vengeliene, unpublished data). In summary, the last decade has witnessed advances in the field of alcohol research with the development of new animal models mimicking core features of an addictive behavior. The validity of animal models is typically assessed using three evaluation criteria, including face, construct, and predictive validity. At the present time, the reinstatement and alcohol deprivation paradigms are the models for which these issues have been addressed most systematically . Another animal model in which excessive drinking following a history of dependence is used by several laboratories to study the neurochemical substrates of the “addicted brain” .

374 Phillips TJ, Wenger CD, Dorow JD. Naltrexone effects on ethanol drinking acquisition and on established ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice. 342 Nowak KL, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK, Murphy JM. Blocking GABA receptors in the anterior ventral tegmental area attenuates ethanol intake of the alcohol-preferring P rat. 335 Myrick H, Anton RF, Li X, Henderson S, Randall PK, Voronin K. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people. 328 Moolten M, Kornetsky C. Oral self-administration of ethanol and not experimenter-administered ethanol facilitates rewarding electrical brain stimulation. 299 Marinelli PW, Quirion R, Gianoulakis C. An in vivo profile of beta-endorphin release Sober Home in the arcuate nucleus and nucleus accumbens following exposure to stress or alcohol. 278 Löf E, Ericson M, Stomberg R, Söderpalm B. Characterization of ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in the rat nucleus accumbens. 266 Lê AD, Quan B, Juzytch W, Fletcher PJ, Joharchi N, Shaham Y. Reinstatement of alcohol-seeking by priming injections of alcohol and exposure to stress in rats. 231 Katner SN, Kerr TM, Weiss F. Ethanol anticipation enhances dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring but not Wistar rats. 219 Jerlhag E, Egecioglu E, Dickson SL, Douhan A, Svensson L, Engel JA. Ghrelin administration into tegmental areas stimulates locomotor activity and increases extracellular concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
physiological dependence on alcohol
For those who struggle with cocaine addiction or addiction to other stimulants, it’s a little different. Substances like cocaine, meth, and prescription amphetamines have different symptoms of withdrawal. Due to the cocaine effects on the brain, your withdrawal symptoms are primarily psychological. You’ll experience a lot of ups and downs while you detox as well as some intense cravings. This evidence suggests that the physical versus psychological addiction comparison could result from changes in brain chemistry from addictive behaviors rather than solely a result of substance use. Physical addiction implies that the consequences of substance use apply mostly to physiological factors. This could include the development of tolerance, experiencing withdrawal symptoms, physical cravings, or the development of medical disease due to substance use. 385 Rassnick S, Pulvirenti L, Koob GF. Oral ethanol self-administration in rats is reduced by the administration of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonists into the nucleus accumbens. 265 Lê AD, Poulos CX, Harding S, Watchus J, Juzytsch W, Shaham Y. Effects of naltrexone and fluoxetine on alcohol self-administration and reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by priming injections of alcohol and exposure to stress.

144 Flatscher-Bader T, van der BM, Hwang JW, Gochee PA, Matsumoto I, Niwa S, Wilce PA. Alcohol-responsive genes in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of human alcoholics. 120 Doty P, de Wit H. Effects of naltrexone pretreatment on the subjective and performance effects of ethanol in social drinkers. 93 Colombo G, Lobina C, Carai MA, Gessa GL. Phenotypic characterization of genetically selected Sardinian alcohol-preferring and -non-preferring rats. 81 Choi DS, Wang D, Dadgar J, Chang WS, Messing RO. Conditional rescue of protein kinase C epsilon regulates ethanol preference and hypnotic sensitivity in adult mice. 73 Carr LG, Spence JP, Peter Eriksson CJ, Lumeng L, Li Colombo G TK, Lobina C, Carai MA, Gessa GL. Phenotypic characterization of genetically selected Sardinian alcohol-preferring and -non-preferring rats. 71 Carboni E, Acquas E, Frau R, Di Chiara G. Differential inhibitory effects of a 5-HT3 antagonist on drug-induced stimulation of dopamine release.

An example of this might be someone using alcohol on a daily basis to cope with stressors, or an individual smoking to calm themselves down. When the individual is not using the drug, they have obsessive thoughts about using the drug again, cravings for the drug, irritability, and high levels of motivation to seek out the drug again. Psychological dependence and psychological addiction are two different terms. Psychological dependence happens when the brain becomes dependent on a drug or activity to feel good, causing a person to crave more of the drug. A person becomes addicted when they use drugs for short-term satisfaction despite a long-term negative outcome. Psychological addiction is a brain disorder involving substance abuse despite the negative outcomes that follow. For future studies, there is great hope of identifying persistent changes in gene expression following alcohol exposure. Persistent alcohol-induced alterations in gene expression have been proposed as a “molecular switch” that could mediate lasting adaptations and maladaptations in the brain and as a consequence pathological behavior. Yet this “molecular switch,” which defines the irreversible transition from controlled to compulsive drug use, has so far not been identified . Alternatively, it has been proposed that epigenetic mechanisms, which exert lasting control over gene expression without altering the genetic code, could mediate persistent molecular alterations within the reinforcement system .

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